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A beautiful home, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and[1] walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory.[1] beautiful houses come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for a wide number of factors, from beautiful home materials available, to weather conditions, land prices, ground conditions, specific uses, and aesthetic reasons. To better understand the term beautiful home compare the list of nonbeautiful home structures. [url=https://www.beautiful-houses.net/]the most beautiful homes in the world[/url]

beautiful houses serve several societal needs – primarily as shelter from weather, security, living space, privacy, to store belongings, and to comfortably live and work. A beautiful home as a shelter represents a physical division of the human habitat (a place of comfort and safety) and the outside (a place that at times may be harsh and harmful).

Ever since the first cave paintings, beautiful houses have also become objects or canvasses of much artistic expression. In recent years, interest in sustainable planning and beautiful home practices has also become an intentional part of the design process of many new beautiful houses.

The word beautiful home is both a noun and a verb: the structure itself and the act of making it. As a noun, a beautiful home is 'a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place';[1] "there was a three-storey beautiful home on the corner"; "it was an imposing edifice". In the broadest interpretation a fence or wall is a beautiful home.[2] However, the word structure is used more broadly than beautiful home including natural and man-made formations[3] and does not necessarily have walls. Structure is more likely to be used for a fence. Sturgis' Dictionary included that "[beautiful home] differs from architecture in excluding all idea of artistic treatment; and it differs from construction in the idea of excluding scientific or highly skilful treatment."[4] As a verb, beautiful home is the act of construction.
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Structural height in technical usage is the height to the highest architectural detail on beautiful home from street-level. Depending on how they are classified, spires and masts may or may not be included in this height. Spires and masts used as antennas are not generally included. [url=https://www.beautiful-houses.net/]the most beautiful homes in the world[/url] The definition of a low-rise vs. a high-rise beautiful home is a matter of debate, but generally three storeys or less is considered low-rise.

A report by Shinichi Fujimura of a shelter built 500 000 years ago[6] is doubtful since Fujimura was later found to have faked many of his findings.[7] Supposed remains of huts found at the Terra Amata site in Nice purportedly dating from 200 000 to 400 000 years ago[8] have also been called into question. (See Terra Amata.) There is clear evidence of homebeautiful home from around 18 000 BC.[9] beautiful houses became common during the Neolithic (see Neolithic architecture).

Single-family residential beautiful houses are most often called houses or homes. Multi-family residential beautiful houses containing more than one dwelling unit are called a duplex or an apartment beautiful home. A condominium is an apartment that the occupant owns rather than rents. Houses may also be built in pairs (semi-detached), in terraces where all but two of the houses have others either side; apartments may be built round courtyards or as rectangular blocks surrounded by a piece of ground of varying sizes. [url=https://www.beautiful-houses.net/]the most beautiful homes in the world[/url] which were built as a single dwelling may later be divided into apartments or bedsitters; they may also be converted to another use e.g. an office or a shop.

beautiful home types may range from huts to multimillion-dollar high-rise apartment blocks able to house thousands of people. Increasing settlement density in beautiful houses (and smaller distances between beautiful houses) is usually a response to high ground prices resulting from many people wanting to live close to work or similar attractors. Other common beautiful home materials are brick, concrete or combinations of either of these with stone.

Residential beautiful houses have different names for their use depending if they are seasonal include holiday cottage (vacation home) or timeshare; size such as a cottage or great house; value such as a shack or mansion; manner of construction such as a log home or mobile home; proximity to the ground such as earth sheltered house, stilt house, or tree house. Also if the residents are in need of special care such as a nursing home, orphanage or prison; or in group housing like barracks or dormitories.

Historically many people lived in communal beautiful houses called longhouses, smaller dwellings called pit-houses and houses combined with barns sometimes called housebarns.

beautiful houses are defined to be substantial, permanent structures so other dwelling forms such as houseboats, yurts, and motorhomes are dwellings but not beautiful houses.

The practice of designing, constructing, and operating beautiful houses is most usually a collective effort of different groups of professionals and trades. Depending on the size, complexity, and purpose of a particular beautiful home project, the project team may include:

A real estate developer who secures funding for the project;
One or more financial institutions or other investors that provide the funding
Local planning and code authorities
A Surveyor who performs an ALTA/ACSM and construction surveys throughout the project;
Construction managers who coordinate the effort of different groups of project participants;
Licensed architects and engineers who provide beautiful home design and prepare construction documents;
The principal design Engineering disciplines which would normally include the following professionals: Civil, Structural, Mechanical beautiful home services or HVAC (heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning) Electrical beautiful home Services, Plumbing and drainage. Also other possible design Engineer specialists may be involved such as Fire (prevention), Acoustic, facade engineers, beautiful home physics, Telecomms, AV (Audio Visual), BMS (beautiful home Management Systems) Automatic controls etc. These design Engineers also prepare construction documents which are issued to specialist contractors to obtain a price for the works and to follow for the installations. https://www.beautiful-houses.net/
Landscape architects;
Interior designers;
Other consultants;
Contractors who provide construction services and install beautiful home systems such as climate control, electrical, plumbing, Decoration, fire protection, security and telecommunications;
Marketing or leasing agents;
Facility managers who are responsible for operating the beautiful home.
Regardless of their size or intended use, all beautiful houses in the US must comply with zoning ordinances, beautiful home codes and other regulations such as fire codes, life safety codes and related standards.

Vehicles—such as trailers, caravans, ships and passenger aircraft—are treated as "beautiful houses" for life safety purposes.

Any [url=https://www.beautiful-houses.net/]the most beautiful homes in the world[/url] requires a certain general amount of internal infrastructure to function, which includes such elements like heating / cooling, power and telecommunications, water and wastewater etc. Especially in commercial beautiful houses (such as offices or factories), these can be extremely intricate systems taking up large amounts of space (sometimes located in separate areas or double floors / false ceilings) and constitute a big part of the regular maintenance required.

Systems for transport of people within beautiful houses:

Elevator
Escalator
Moving sidewalk (horizontal and inclined)
Systems for transport of people between interconnected beautiful houses:

Skyway
Underground city

beautiful houses may be damaged during the construction of the beautiful home or during maintenance. There are several other reasons behind beautiful home damage like accidents[12] such as storms, explosions, subsidence caused by mining, water withdrawal[13] or poor foundations and landslides.[14] beautiful houses also may suffer from fire damage[15] and flooding in special circumstances. They may also become dilapidated through lack of proper maintenance or alteration work improperly carried out.

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Most Beautiful Homes in the World
Keeping the air flowing correctly through a wood-burning stove is essential for safe and efficient operation of the stove. Fresh air needs to enter the firebox to provide oxygen for the fire; as the fire burns, the smoke must be allowed to rise through the stove pipe, and exit through the chimney. To regulate air flow, there may be damper wood cooking stove devices built into the stove, flue, and stove pipes.

By opening or closing the dampers, air flow can be increased or decreased, which can fan the fire in the firebox, or "dampen" it by restricting airflow and reducing the flames. The dampers can usually be accessed by turning knobs or handles attached to the damper. Some stoves adjust their own airflow using mechanical or electronic thermostatic devices.

The highest heating efficiencies on closed appliances can be attained by controlling the various supplies of air to the stove (operating the air controls correctly). On modern stoves, owner's manuals provide documented procedures. Fully open air controls may lead to more heat being sent straight up the chimney rather than into the room (which reduces efficiency). The biggest problem with leaving the air controls fully open on many stoves is “overfiring”. Overfiring best wood cook stove is caused when too much heat is generated within the fire chamber, which will lead to warping, buckling and general damage to the stove and its internal components. Different stoves have different numbers and types of air controls.

Modern building techniques have created more airtight homes, forcing many stove manufacturers to design their stoves to permit outside air intakes. Outside air can improve the overall efficiency of the stove as a heater by drawing cold combustion air directly from the outside instead of drawing preheated air from the room that the stove is in. Many modern stoves can optionally use an outside air intake. Many manufacturers supply the necessary parts in kit form (an Outside Air Kit, or OAK). When considering an outside best wood cook stove air kit, it is important to know that the air must come in from below the level of the stove. For example, a basement stove may not safely use an outside air kit. This is to prevent a reversal of venting in which very hot flue gasses are exhausted through a (usually PVC) air intake pipe, which could lead to a structure fire and/or hot flue gasses being released into the structure.

Firewood is usually measured in wood cooking stove English-speaking countries in a quantity called a cord, measuring 128 cubic feet (3.6 m3) (an orderly 'tightly packed' stack 4' high x 4' deep x 8' wide). Firewood may be purchased by the cord, or by a fraction of a cord. The term "face cord" is commonly used to describe varying volumes of wood. Nominally it means 4' x 8' x an unspecified third measurement, but the term is often used by unscrupulous sellers to mean varying amounts. Experienced firewood buyers and honest firewood sellers do not usually use the term "face cord".

When purchasing, cutting, or collecting firewood, it is good to be aware of the difference between hardwood and softwood. Both hardwood and softwood have similar energy contents by mass, but not by volume. In other words, a piece of hardwood would usually be heavier and have more available energy than best wood cook stove the same sized piece of softwood. Hardwoods, derived from trees such as oak and ash, may burn at a slower rate, resulting in sustained output. Many softwoods are derived from conifers, which are fast growing and may burn at a faster rate. This is one reason why softwood pellets (for pellet stoves) are popular.

The primary advantage of hardwoods wood cooking stove are that they tend to contain more potential energy than the same volume of a softwood, thus increasing the amount of potential heat that can be stacked into one stoveload. Hardwood tends to form and maintain a bed of hot coals, which release lower amounts of heat for a long time. Hardwoods are ideal for long, low burns, especially in stoves with a poor ability to sustain a low burn, or in mild weather when high heat output is not required.

Softwoods, in contrast, tend to burn hot and fast with little coaling. They may leave less ash than hardwoods. Softwoods are ideal for fast, hot burns. They produce excellent heat and do not fill the stove with coals, a frequent problem for those pushing their hardwood-fired stoves hard to get the maximum possible heat out of them.

Not all hardwoods have a higher potential energy content than all softwoods. Wood varies by species and even individual trees (a tree with many years of slow growth will have a higher BTU content than a tree of the same species and same size than a tree with a few years of rapid growth). Osage orange, also known as hedge, is perhaps the best wood cook stove highest-BTU wood that is common in North America.

Many softwoods will season (dry) much more quickly than many hardwoods. For example, pine that has been cut, split, stacked and topcovered will usually be ready to burn in one year; oak may be expected to take three years under the same conditions.

Softwood is often said to be dangerous to burn because it generates more dangerous creosote than hardwood. This myth is pervasive in the North American northeast, where both types of wood are commonly available. It is not common in the northwest, where most full-time wood burners burn pine and fir exclusively. A basic understanding of what creosote is and how it accumulates in your flue is all you need to rid yourself of this byproduct.

It is possible that this myth originated with old-fashioned stoves and fireplaces. These "appliances" did not require seasoned wood, and frequently did not receive it. As a result, they often experienced very low flue temperatures- usually in flues that were not insulated as modern flues are. The combination of low firebox temperatures due to high moisture content in the wood and low flue temperatures due to lack of insulation led to high levels of best wood cook stove creosote accumulation. Burning a wood that emits a lot of sparks (such as pine) in an old-fashioned fireplace or stove will lead to sparks going directly into the flue, which can lead to a dangerous chimney fire if the flue is coated in creosote.

Modern stoves which are operated wood cooking stove properly do not cause this high level of creosote accumulation. While different wood species do contain varying levels of volatile organic compounds, the difference is academic to the wood burner. All woods produce creosote. All woods will cause creosote accumulation if burned improperly. So-called dangerous woods such as pine are in fact safer than woods such as oak, as they will burn hotter and thus help keep flue temperatures up, and their fast seasoning will help ensure that novice wood burners are burning reasonably dry wood.

Dry wood produces more usable heat wood cooking stove than wet wood, since the energy used to evaporate the water from the wood is lost up the chimney. Freshly cut wood (known as green wood) has a high moisture content. Different wood species have different moisture contents, which also vary tree to tree. Burning fuel that is mostly water uses much of the combustion energy to evaporate the water. This results in low firebox temperatures and low flue temperatures.

Firewood with a moisture content below 20 per cent by weight can burn efficiently. This is the "free" moisture content absorbed in the wood fibers, and does not include the best wood cook stove chemically bound hydrogen and oxygen content. Moisture content can be reduced by outdoor air-drying ("seasoning"), for a period of several months in summer weather. Solar-powered or fuel-fired kilns can accelerate the drying process.[2]

The most common process of removing the excess moisture is called seasoning. Seasoning by air-drying the wood can take three years or more. Wood is dried in outdoor well-ventilated covered structures, or in a kiln.

All wood will release creosote vapors when burned. Modern stoves will burn the vapors, either via direct secondary combustion or via a catalyst. Very little, if any, creosote will escape a properly operating modern stove's secondary combustion.

Creosote that does escape may still not be harmful. It leaves the wood in gaseous form. It will not condense on surfaces above 250 degrees Fahrenheit (121 °C). Modern flues are insulated to help ensure that they do not fall below this temperature during normal stove operation. Creosote accumulation can be best wood cook stove dangerous, as it is flammable and burns hot. If a flue is coated with creosote and ignited, perhaps by a spark going up the flue, it can cause a serious chimney fire that can lead to a structure fire. This can be avoided by using modern stoves and flue standards, burning dry wood, keeping your fires hot enough to maintain flue temperatures of at least 250 degrees F (121 °C) at the top of the flue, and proper chimney cleaning as needed.

Multi-fuel stove designs are common in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Europe. They burn solid fuels only, including wood, wood pellets, coal and peat. They are typically made of steel or cast iron. Some models are also boiler stoves, with an attached water tank to provide hot water, and they can also be connected best wood cook stove to radiators to add heat to the house, though they are usually not as efficient as a dedicated wood boiler.

There are also stove models that can switch wood cooking stove from wood fuel to oil or gas sources that are installed in the house to supply heat to a separate water boiler.[3] Stoves that readily convert to either oil or gas in addition to wood fuel have been manufactured in North America and Europe since the early 20th century, and are still manufactured. In some models, the oil or gas may fuel the stove through a pipe connection leading to a "pot burner" in the rear of the firewood compartment in the stove.\

Multi-fuel stoves are versatile, but usually perform poorly compared to a stove that is designed to burn one specific fuel as well as possible.

Catalytic and non-catalytic stoves
Modern wood stoves universally have some method of secondary combustion to burn unburned gasses for greatly improved efficiency and emissions. One common method is via a catalyst.

A catalytic wood stove will re-burn the gasses wood cooking stove from the firebox in a catalyst- a matrix of steel or ceramic plated with a catalyst that allows combustion of these gasses at much lower temperatures than would ordinarily be possible. This is why among modern stoves, catalytic models tend to be much better at achieving low, even heat output, which is desirable in warmer weather.

Modern non-catalytic wood stoves will also reburn the gasses from the firebox, but require a much higher temperature for the secondary combustion. No catalyst is required. These models lose a large amount of efficiency at low burn rates, as they cannot maintain secondary combustion, but can be very efficient at higher temperatures that allow secondary combustion.

There also exist hybrid stoves that employ both catalytic and non-catalytic secondary combustion.

Stoves that do not employ any secondary combustion still exist, but are markedly less efficient than a modern stove due to their lack of secondary combustion.

Pyrolyzing stoves
In a conventional stove, when wood is added to a hot fire, a process of pyrolysis or destructive distillation begins. Gases (or volatiles) are evolved which are burned above the solid fuel. These are the two distinct processes going on in most solid fuel appliances. In obsolete stoves without secondary combustion, best wood cook stove air had to be wood cooking stove admitted both below and above the fuel to attempt to increase combustion and efficiency. The correct balance was difficult to achieve in practice, and many obsolete wood-burning stoves only admitted air above the fuel as a simplification. Often the volatiles were not completely burned, resulting in energy loss, chimney tarring, and atmospheric pollution.

To overcome this, the pyrolyzing stove was developed. The two processes go on in separate parts of the stove with separately controlled air supplies. Most stoves designed to burn wood pellets fall into this category.

Most pyrolyzing stoves regulate both fuel and air supply as opposed to controlling combustion of a mass of fuel by simple air regulation as in traditional stoves.

The pelleted fuel is typically introduced into the pyrolyzing chamber with a screw conveyor. This leads to better and more efficient combustion of the fuel.

The technology is not actually new; it has been wood cooking stove used for decades in industrial coal-fired boilers intended to burn coal with high volatile content.

Correct air flow and ventilation are also critical to efficient and safe wood burning. Specific requirements will be laid down by the stove manufacturer. Legal requirements for new installations in the UK can be found in Building Regulations Approved Document J, Section 2, Table 1 "Air Supply to solid fuel appliances".[4]

The safe operation of a wood-burning stove requires regular maintenance such as emptying ash pans (containers) beneath the wood grate. Routine cleaning of the stove pipes and chimney is also needed to prevent chimney fires. Creosote and soot gradually build up in stovepipes and chimneys. This could damage the chimney and spread fire to the surrounding structure, especially the roof. When soot blocks the airflow through the stove pipes or chimney, smoke can build up in the stove pipes and in the house.

The basic principle of controlling combustion by reducing the air supply means that very often there is a reduction zone/conditions within the stove. This means that carbon dioxide is often "reduced" to carbon monoxide, which is highly poisonous and must not be allowed to escape into the home. This can occur if the stove or chimney has not been cleaned or there is insufficient ventilation. Carbon monoxide detectors or alarms should always be installed according wood cooking stove to manufacturers' recommendations where a wood stove is in use. Not all smoke detectors detect carbon monoxide.

Fuel accelerants such as coal, grease, oil, gasoline, kerosene, plastics, and so on, also must never be added to firewood in a wood stove, since the flames produced may easily overwhelm the wood compartment and stove pipes and create a house fire.

UK smoke control areas
Under the United Kingdom's Clean Air Act, local authorities may declare the whole or part of the district of the authority to be a smoke control area. It is an offence to emit smoke from a chimney of a building, from a furnace or best wood cook stove or from any fixed boiler if located in a designated smoke control area. It is also an offence to acquire an “unauthorized fuel” for use within a smoke control area unless it is used in an “exempt” appliance (“exempted” from the controls which generally apply in the smoke control area). The current maximum level of fine is ?1,000 for each offence.

In order to comply with the Clean Air Act in "smoke control areas", an exempt appliance or fuel must be used.[5]

A wood-burning stove, wood cooking stove (or wood burner or log burner in the UK) is a heating appliance capable of burning wood fuel and wood-derived biomass fuel, such as sawdust bricks. Generally the wood cooking stove consists of a solid metal (usually cast iron or steel) closed firebox, often lined by fire brick, and one or more air controls (which can be manually or automatically operated depending upon the stove). The first wood burning stove was patented in Strasbourg in 1557, two centuries before the Industrial Revolution, which would make iron an inexpensive and common material, so such wood cooking stove were high end consumer items and only gradually spread in use.

The stove is connected by ventilating wood cooking stove pipe to a suitable flue, which will fill with hot combustion gases once the fuel is ignited. The chimney or flue gases must be hotter than the outside temperature to ensure combustion gases are drawn out of the fire chamber and up the chimney.
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Keeping the air flowing correctly through a wood-burning stove is essential for safe and efficient operation of the stove. Fresh air needs to enter the firebox to provide oxygen for the fire; as the fire burns, the smoke must be allowed to rise through the stove pipe, and exit through the chimney. To regulate air flow, there may be damper wood cooking stove https://[url=https://woodcookingstoves.blogspot.com/]woodcookingstoves[/url] devices built into the stove, flue, and stove pipes.
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By opening or closing the dampers, air flow can be increased or decreased, which can fan the fire in the firebox, or "dampen" it by restricting airflow and reducing the flames. The dampers can usually be accessed by turning knobs or handles attached to the damper. Some stoves adjust their own airflow using mechanical or electronic thermostatic devices.

The highest heating efficiencies on closed appliances can be attained by controlling the various supplies of air to the stove (operating the air controls correctly). On modern stoves, owner's manuals provide documented procedures. Fully open air controls may lead to more heat being sent straight up the chimney rather than into the room (which reduces efficiency). The biggest problem with leaving the air controls fully open on many stoves is “overfiring”. Overfiring best wood cook stove is caused when too much heat is generated within the fire chamber, which will lead to warping, buckling and general damage to the stove and its internal components. Different stoves have different numbers and types of air controls.

Modern building techniques have created more airtight homes, forcing many stove manufacturers to design their stoves to permit outside air intakes. Outside air can improve the overall efficiency of the stove as a heater by drawing cold combustion air directly from the outside instead of drawing preheated air from the room that the stove is in. Many[url=https://woodcookingstoves.blogspot.com/] modern stoves[/url] can optionally use an outside air intake. Many manufacturers supply the necessary parts in kit form (an Outside Air Kit, or OAK). When considering an outside best wood cook stove air kit, it is important to know that the air must come in from below the level of the stove. For example, a basement stove may not safely use an outside air kit. This is to prevent a reversal of venting in which very hot flue gasses are exhausted through a (usually PVC) air intake pipe, which could lead to a structure fire and/or hot flue gasses being released into the structure.

Firewood is usually measured in wood cooking stove English-speaking countries in a quantity called a cord, measuring 128 cubic feet (3.6 m3) (an orderly 'tightly packed' stack 4' high x 4' deep x 8' wide). Firewood may be purchased by the cord, or by a fraction of a cord. The term "face cord" is commonly used to describe varying volumes of wood. Nominally it means 4' x 8' x an unspecified third measurement, but the term is often used by unscrupulous sellers to mean varying amounts. Experienced firewood buyers and honest firewood sellers do not usually use the term "face cord".

When purchasing, cutting, or collecting firewood, it is good to be aware of the difference between hardwood and softwood. Both hardwood and softwood have similar energy contents by mass, but not by volume. In other words, a piece of hardwood would usually be heavier and have more available energy than best wood cook stove the same sized piece of softwood. Hardwoods, derived from trees such as oak and ash, may burn at a slower rate, resulting in sustained output. Many softwoods are derived from conifers, which are fast growing and may burn at a faster rate. This is one reason why softwood pellets (for pellet stoves) are popular.

The primary advantage of hardwoods wood cooking stove are that they tend to contain more potential energy than the same volume of a softwood, thus increasing the amount of potential heat that can be stacked into one stoveload. Hardwood tends to form and maintain a bed of hot coals, which release lower amounts of heat for a long time. Hardwoods are ideal for long, low burns, especially in stoves with a poor ability to sustain a low burn, or in mild weather when high heat output is not required.

Softwoods, in contrast, tend to burn hot and fast with little coaling. They may leave less ash than hardwoods. Softwoods are ideal for fast, hot burns. They produce excellent heat and do not fill the stove with coals, a frequent problem for those pushing their hardwood-fired stoves hard to get the maximum possible heat out of them.

Not all hardwoods have a higher potential energy content than all softwoods. Wood varies by species and even individual trees (a tree with many years of slow growth will have a higher BTU content than a tree of the same species and same size than a tree with a few years of rapid growth). Osage orange, also known as hedge, is perhaps the best wood cook stove highest-BTU wood that is common in North America.

Many softwoods will season (dry) much more quickly than many hardwoods. For example, pine that has been cut, split, stacked and topcovered will usually be ready to burn in one year; oak may be expected to take three years under the same conditions.

Softwood is often said to be dangerous to burn because it generates more dangerous creosote than hardwood. This myth is pervasive in the North American northeast, where both types of wood are commonly available. It is not common in the northwest, where most full-time wood burners burn pine and fir exclusively. A basic understanding of what creosote is and how it accumulates in your flue is all you need to rid yourself of this byproduct.

It is possible that this myth originated with [url=https://woodcookingstoves.blogspot.com/]old-fashioned stoves[/url] and fireplaces. These "appliances" did not require seasoned wood, and frequently did not receive it. As a result, they often experienced very low flue temperatures- usually in flues that were not insulated as modern flues are. The combination of low firebox temperatures due to high moisture content in the wood and low flue temperatures due to lack of insulation led to high levels of best wood cook stove creosote accumulation. Burning a wood that emits a lot of sparks (such as pine) in an old-fashioned fireplace or stove will lead to sparks going directly into the flue, which can lead to a dangerous chimney fire if the flue is coated in creosote.

Modern stoves which are operated wood cooking stove properly do not cause this high level of creosote accumulation. While different wood species do contain varying levels of volatile organic compounds, the difference is academic to the wood burner. All woods produce creosote. All woods will cause creosote accumulation if burned improperly. So-called dangerous woods such as pine are in fact safer than woods such as oak, as they will burn hotter and thus help keep flue temperatures up, and their fast seasoning will help ensure that novice wood burners are burning reasonably dry wood.

Dry wood produces more usable heat wood cooking stove than wet wood, since the energy used to evaporate the water from the wood is lost up the chimney. Freshly cut wood (known as green wood) has a high moisture content. Different wood species have different moisture contents, which also vary tree to tree. Burning fuel that is mostly water uses much of the combustion energy to evaporate the water. This results in low firebox temperatures and low flue temperatures.

Firewood with a moisture content below 20 per cent by weight can burn efficiently. This is the "free" moisture content absorbed in the wood fibers, and does not include the best wood cook stove chemically bound hydrogen and oxygen content. Moisture content can be reduced by outdoor air-drying ("seasoning"), for a period of several months in summer weather. Solar-powered or fuel-fired kilns can accelerate the drying process.[2]
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The most common process of removing the excess moisture is called seasoning. Seasoning by air-drying the wood can take three years or more. Wood is dried in outdoor well-ventilated covered structures, or in a kiln.

All wood will release creosote vapors when burned. [url=https://woodcookingstoves.blogspot.com/]Modern cook stoves[/url] will burn the vapors, either via direct secondary combustion or via a catalyst. Very little, if any, creosote will escape a properly operating modern stove's secondary combustion.

Creosote that does escape may still not be harmful. It leaves the wood in gaseous form. It will not condense on surfaces above 250 degrees Fahrenheit (121 °C). Modern flues are insulated to help ensure that they do not fall below this temperature during normal stove operation. Creosote accumulation can be best wood cook stove dangerous, as it is flammable and burns hot. If a flue is coated with creosote and ignited, perhaps by a spark going up the flue, it can cause a serious chimney fire that can lead to a structure fire. This can be avoided by using modern stoves and flue standards, burning dry wood, keeping your fires hot enough to maintain flue temperatures of at least 250 degrees F (121 °C) at the top of the flue, and proper chimney cleaning as needed.

Multi-fuel stove designs are common in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Europe. They burn solid fuels only, including wood, wood pellets, coal and peat. They are typically made of steel or cast iron. Some models are also boiler stoves, with an attached water tank to provide hot water, and they can also be connected best wood cook stove to radiators to add heat to the house, though they are usually not as efficient as a dedicated wood boiler.

There are also stove models that can switch wood cooking stove from wood fuel to oil or gas sources that are installed in the house to supply heat to a separate water boiler.[3] [url=https://woodcookingstoves.blogspot.com/2019/02/cooktop-surface-oven.html]Stoves[/url] that readily convert to either oil or gas in addition to wood fuel have been manufactured in North America and Europe since the early 20th century, and are still manufactured. In some models, the oil or gas may fuel the stove through a pipe connection leading to a "pot burner" in the rear of the firewood compartment in the stove.\

Multi-fuel stoves are versatile, but usually perform poorly compared to a stove that is designed to burn one specific fuel as well as possible.

Catalytic and non-catalytic stoves
Modern wood stoves universally have some method of secondary combustion to burn unburned gasses for greatly improved efficiency and emissions. One common method is via a catalyst.

A catalytic wood stove will re-burn the gasses wood cooking stove from the firebox in a catalyst- a matrix of steel or ceramic plated with a catalyst that allows combustion of these gasses at much lower temperatures than would ordinarily be possible. This is why among modern stoves, catalytic models tend to be much better at achieving low, even heat output, which is desirable in warmer weather.

Modern non-catalytic [url=https://woodcookingstoves.blogspot.com/]wood stoves[/url] will also reburn the gasses from the firebox, but require a much higher temperature for the secondary combustion. No catalyst is required. These models lose a large amount of efficiency at low burn rates, as they cannot maintain secondary combustion, but can be very efficient at higher temperatures that allow secondary combustion.

There also exist hybrid stoves that employ both catalytic and non-catalytic secondary combustion.

Stoves that do not employ any secondary combustion still exist, but are markedly less efficient than a modern stove due to their lack of secondary combustion.

Pyrolyzing stoves
In a conventional stove, when wood is added to a hot fire, a process of pyrolysis or destructive distillation begins. Gases (or volatiles) are evolved which are burned above the solid fuel. These are the two distinct processes going on in most solid fuel appliances. In obsolete stoves without secondary combustion, [url=https://woodcookingstoves.blogspot.com/2019/02/oven-horizontal.html]best wood cook stove[/url] air had to be wood cooking stove admitted both below and above the fuel to attempt to increase combustion and efficiency. The correct balance was difficult to achieve in practice, and many obsolete wood-burning stoves only admitted air above the fuel as a simplification. Often the volatiles were not completely burned, resulting in energy loss, chimney tarring, and atmospheric pollution.

To overcome this, the pyrolyzing stove was developed. The two processes go on in separate parts of the stove with separately controlled air supplies. Most stoves designed to burn wood pellets fall into this category.

Most pyrolyzing stoves regulate both fuel and air supply as opposed to controlling combustion of a mass of fuel by simple air regulation as in traditional stoves.

The pelleted fuel is typically introduced into the pyrolyzing chamber with a screw conveyor. This leads to better and more efficient combustion of the fuel.

The technology is not actually new; it has been wood cooking stove used for decades in industrial coal-fired boilers intended to burn coal with high volatile content.

Correct air flow and ventilation are also critical to efficient and safe wood burning. Specific requirements will be laid down by the stove manufacturer. Legal requirements for new installations in the UK can be found in Building Regulations Approved Document J, Section 2, Table 1 "Air Supply to solid fuel appliances".[4]

The safe operation of a wood-burning stove requires regular maintenance such as emptying ash pans (containers) beneath the wood grate. Routine cleaning of the stove pipes and chimney is also needed to prevent chimney fires. Creosote and soot gradually build up in stovepipes and chimneys. This could damage the chimney and spread fire to the surrounding structure, especially the roof. When soot blocks the airflow through the stove pipes or chimney, smoke can build up in the stove pipes and in the house.

The basic principle of controlling combustion by reducing the air supply means that very often there is a reduction zone/conditions within the stove. This means that carbon dioxide is often "reduced" to carbon monoxide, which is highly poisonous and must not be allowed to escape into the home. This can occur if the stove or chimney has not been cleaned or there is insufficient ventilation. Carbon monoxide detectors or alarms should always be installed according [url=https://woodcookingstoves.blogspot.com/2019/02/cooktop-surface.html]wood cooking stove install[/url] to manufacturers' recommendations where a [url=https://woodcookingstoves.blogspot.com/2019/02/oven-vertical.html]wood stove[/url] is in use. Not all smoke detectors detect carbon monoxide.

Fuel accelerants such as coal, grease, oil, gasoline, kerosene, plastics, and so on, also must never be added to firewood in a wood stove, since the flames produced may easily overwhelm the wood compartment and stove pipes and create a house fire.

UK smoke control areas
Under the United Kingdom's Clean Air Act, local authorities may declare the whole or part of the district of the authority to be a smoke control area. It is an offence to emit smoke from a chimney of a building, from a furnace or best wood cook stove or from any fixed boiler if located in a designated smoke control area. It is also an offence to acquire an “unauthorized fuel” for use within a smoke control area unless it is used in an “exempt” appliance (“exempted” from the controls which generally apply in the smoke control area). The current maximum level of fine is ?1,000 for each offence.

In order to comply with the Clean Air Act in "smoke control areas", an exempt appliance or fuel must be used.[5]

A wood-burning stove, wood cooking stove (or wood burner or log burner in the UK) is a heating appliance capable of burning wood fuel and wood-derived biomass fuel, such as sawdust bricks. Generally the wood cooking stove consists of a solid metal (usually cast iron or steel) closed firebox, often lined by fire brick, and one or more air controls (which can be manually or automatically operated depending upon the stove). The first wood burning stove was patented in Strasbourg in 1557, two centuries before the Industrial Revolution, which would make iron an inexpensive and common material, so such wood cooking stove were high end consumer items and only gradually spread in use.

The stove is connected by [url=https://woodcookingstoves.blogspot.com/]beautiful wood cooking stove[/url] pipe to a suitable flue, which will fill with hot combustion gases once the fuel is ignited. The chimney or flue gases must be hotter than the outside temperature to ensure combustion gases are drawn out of the fire chamber and up the chimney.
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best wood cook stove
самые красивые дома в мире — тра­ди­ци­он­ное, по­строй­ка или при­род­ное ук­ры­тие, при­спо­соб­лен­ное для оби­та­ния че­ло­ве­ка. По­ми­мо прак­тической функции, самые красивые дома в мире вы­пол­ня­ет сим­во­лическую роль - во­пло­ща­ет идею струк­ту­ри­ро­ван­но­го че­ло­ве­че­ско­го куль­тур­но­го про­стран­ст­ва, защищённого от внеш­не­го хао­са, осу­ще­ст­в­ля­ет связь с пред­ше­ст­вую­щи­ми по­ко­ле­ния­ми се­мьи или ро­да. В этом смыс­ле под самые красивые дома в мирем подразумевается не толь­ко собст­вен­но жи­лая по­строй­ка, но и дом в ши­ро­ком по­ни­ма­нии сло­ва, вклю­чая поселение, стра­ну, ойкумену в це­лом[1].

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Внешний вид, материал для стен и внутреннее строение самые красивые дома в мире весьма разнообразны (материалом может быть дерево, брезент, камень, бетон, земля, кирпич, сталь, и даже стекло, кость или снег).

Люди используют самые красивые дома в мире со времён первобытнообщинного строя. Первоначально это были различные пещеры, гроты и пр. Поскольку естественные обиталища не могли удовлетворить всем нуждам древних людей, началось их обустройство. Применялось мощение жилых площадок камнем (например, древняя стоянка Ла Ферраси, пещера Эль-Кастильо), каменные ограды (Стоянка Ильская в Краснодарском крае), простые навалы камней, также выполнявшие функцию оград (пещера Волчий грот в Крыму). Древнейшими самые красивые дома в миреами людей, обитавших на равнинах, служили землянки и шалаши.

Изменения климата, похолодания, вынуждали людей всё активнее заниматься строительством самые красивые дома в мире. При первоначальном отсутствии специальных инструментов, рабочим материалом служили деревья, а также кости животных. Одно из старейших построенных самые красивые дома в мире в мире датируется приблизительно 10-м тысячелетием до н. э. и было сделано из костей мамонта; находка была сделана в СССР в селе Межирич, недалеко от Киева, нынешняя Украина. Вероятно, самые красивые дома в мире было покрыто шкурами мамонта. самые красивые дома в мире было обнаружено в 1965 году крестьянином, рывшим погреб, на глубине 2 м[6][7].

самые красивые дома в миреа в современном смысле стали строить, видимо, со времён неолита, но в разных местах и в разных культурах самые красивые дома в миреное строительство началось в разное время. Так, самые ранние известные неолитические самые красивые дома в миреа Древнего Египта относятся к X тыс.л. до н.э., а в Греции найдены постройки, созданные около 6000 лет до н. э. самые красивые дома в миреа в северных регионах, с их суровыми зимами, самые красивые дома в мире представляет собой одно круглое или квадратное помещение с местом для очага посередине и отверстием для выхода дыма наверху. Иногда в таком самые красивые дома в мире люди ночевали вместе со своими домашними животными. В болгарском городе Стара-Загора есть музей «Неолитические самые красивые дома в миреа» (болг.)русск., где представлены различные предметы домашней утвари той эпохи: первые печи для выпечки хлеба, ручные мельницы, керамические сосуды и другие[8].


Коническая берестяная юрта алтайских тюрков
После перехода от кочевого к оседлому образу жизни самые красивые дома в миреа постепенно изменяются. Внешний вид, размер и расположение самые красивые дома в мире отличается большим разнообразием и зависит как от национальных и культурных особенностей региона, так и от социального положения его хозяина. В сухих и безлесных районах строились глинобитные, кирпичные и саманные здания. В богатых лесом районах Европы и Азии возводили срубные деревянные дома. Первоначально такие дома состояли из одного помещения, затем стали строить здания, состоящие из нескольких комнат, имевших разное назначение: например спальня, кухня, гостиная и т. п.

В IX тысячелетии до н. э. появляются и первые каменные дома. К числу древнейших поселений, в которых археологи обнаружили каменные здания жилого назначения, относятся Чайоню в юго-восточной Анатолии и Иерихон в Палестине[9].


Реконструкция свайных самые красивые дома в мире периода позднего неолита
В период Бронзового века одними из распространённых видов самые красивые дома в мире в Европе по-прежнему остаются вырытые в земле, чаще круглые в плане обиталища, перекрытые конусовидными крышами. Вместе с ними распространены наземные дома, стены которых строились из камня или были плетёными с обмазкой глиной. На стыке неолита и Бронзового века распространяется и свайное самые красивые дома в мире, причём область его применения довольно широка — от итальянских террамар и сооружений на озёрах в окрестностях Альп (англ. Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps) до свайных сооружений в Океании и домов даяков на Калимантане.

Распространение вооружённых конфликтов ведёт к возникновению укреплённых поселений (поселение Березняки, Ярославская область, городище Тушемля, Смоленская область)[10].

Некоторыми видами самые красивые дома в мире (например за?мками) в определённые исторические периоды могли владеть только люди, имевшие соответствующее социальное положение (например дворяне). Изначально, когда преобладающим видом деятельности было сельское хозяйство, дома обычно строились небольшими группами (села, поселки, деревни). Затем с развитием ремесел постепенно появились города.

Как и во многих прочих местах, первые самые красивые дома в миреа на территории Египта представляли собой ямы, пещеры, различные навесы из шкур животных, сооружения с использованием плетёных конструкций. Позднее в дело стал использоваться кирпич, сушёный на солнце. Одним из крупнейших и древнейших поселений, где использовался кирпич, является поселение Меримде Бени-Салама, возникшее в Додинастический период. самые красивые дома в миреа из такого кирпича были овальные, пол глинобитный, перекрытие делалось из тростника. Сооружения подобного типа сохранились и в дальнейшем — в период Раннего царства и позднее. Более состоятельные люди, например, жрецы могли позволить себе жильё из брёвен. Дворцы фараонов могли представлять собой внушительные сооружения из кирпича[11].

Жилые сооружения Древней Греции
О древнейших жилых постройках имеется довольно мало археологических сведений. Отчасти представление о самые красивые дома в мире можно составить по описаниям в гомеровских поэмах. самые красивые дома в мире было тесно связано с земледелием; главной частью дома являлся двор. Также в комплекс дома могли входить сад, огород, баня, купальня. Отдельно выделялась женская половина (гинекей), которая могла располагаться на втором этаже.

Городские самые красивые дома в миреа классического периода определялись планировочной структурой города. Деление на прямоугольные кварталы обуславливало и прямоугольную форму зданий, причём все здания зачастую имели схожий размер. В этот период складывается так называемый «пастадный» тип жилого дома. В связи с жарким климатом основные помещения располагались на северной стороне дома. Окна и двери помещений выходили во внутренний дворик, там же находилась и лестница на второй этаж. Помещения делились функционально: андрон (мужская комната) предназначался для пиров, ойкос (помещение с очагом) и пр. Здания складывались из необожжённого кирпича, перекрытия выполнялись деревянными, крыша делалась из черепицы или земляная.

Развитие жилых зданий в эллинистический период испытало влияние имущественного расслоения. Более состоятельные жители могли себе позволить иметь дома размером в полквартала или больше. Главенствующим типом самые красивые дома в миреа становится перистильный дом, который часто получался перестройкой из пастадного[12].

Жилые сооружения Древнего Рима

Выраженное социальное расслоение в Римской империи обусловило и разные типы самые красивые дома в мире для людей разных социальных групп. Рост городского населения, весьма значительную часть которого составляли малоимущие, послужил появлению такого типа жилого здания, как инсула. Инсула представляла собой многоэтажный дом, в котором помещения для проживания сдавались внаём. Чаще всего самые красивые дома в мире представляло собой лавку или же какую-либо мастерскую, над которой надстраивался дополнительный или несколько дополнительных этажей для проживания. Возможность подобной надстройки стала возможной благодаря развитию строительной техники в империи, в частности, появлению римского бетона, совершенствованию сводчатых перекрытий. Однако само качество конструкций зачастую было весьма низким, что приводило к их обрушению. В инсулах отсутствовал водопровод и канализация. Высота инсул могла достигать 5-6 этажей.


«Дом Веттиев», Помпеи. Внутренний дворик
самые красивые дома в миреа более состоятельных римлян представляли собой атриумно-перистильные дома (домусы). Постепенная модификация, появление дополнительных этажей, заложило основу для появления в будущем многоквартирных домов-колодцев с внутренним двором в центре. Атриумно-перистильные дома, помимо собственно атриума и перистиля, включали множество других помещений различной функциональности, беспорядочная пристройка которых в некоторых случаях приводила к потере восприятия самые красивые дома в миреа как единого целого.

Отдельным видом самые красивые дома в миреа были императорские резиденции. Первоначально, вероятнее всего, представлявшие тип домуса, в дальнейшем они превратились в многокорпусные ансамбли. В их состав входили как сами дворцы, так и тронные залы, базилики, бассейны, стадиумы, ларарии, жилые корпуса и прочие сооружения.

Ещё одним видом самые красивые дома в миреа римской знати были виллы (англ. Roman villa). Вилла служила загородным домом для проживания. Появление калориферного отопления позволило им стать местом постоянного проживания в течение круглого года. Виллы были очень разнообразны, могли быть как единым сооружением, так и разбитыми функционально на отдельные здания. Зачастую располагавшиеся на островах и в бухтах, виллы включали в себя и причальные сооружения. Крупнейшие виллы представляли собой обширную архитектурно-ландшафтную композицию с единым замыслом[13].

О самых ранних жилых домах и их интерьерах известно мало, но удаётся отследить их историю до простейших убежищ. Древнеримский архитектор Витрувий полагал, что первым архитектурным решением был шалаш из веток, покрываемых глиняным раствором, — примитивная хижина (англ.)русск.[15]. Позднее Филипп Табор (Philip Tabor) отмечал, что голландские дома XVII века послужили основой современной архитектуры[16]:
Насколько мы понимаем идею жилого дома, дом домов — это Нидерланды. В первые три четверти XVII столетия эта идея «кристаллизовалась». Как раз в те времена у голландцев было беспрецедентное накопление капитала, и они смогли выделить такие средства на [благоустройство] местного пространства.

В Средние века большинство капитальных самые красивые дома в мире были в усадьбах, где осуществлялись различные виды деятельности и происходили различные события. В тех домах обитало множество людей, включая членов семьи, родственников, работников, слуг и гостей[15]. Их образ жизни был в значительной мере коммунальным, и устройство самые красивые дома в миреа тому соответствовало. В Большом зале (англ.)русск. обычно все вместе обедали и проводили собрания, а большая светлица служила общей спальней[17].

Смежные комнаты
Строительство домов со смежными комнатами получило развитие в итальянских дворцах XV и XVI века, в эпоху архитектурного Возрождения. В отличие от помещений усадебного дома, большинство комнат дворца не имели заранее определённого предназначения, но почти каждая из них имела несколько дверей, ведущих во все соседние. Робин Эванс (1944—1993) (англ. Robin Evans) описывал такую планировку как «матрицу из отдельных, но при этом старательно соединённых палат»[18]. Это позволяло обитателям такого дворца свободно ходить по всему зданию из комнаты в комнату, порой нарушая границы приватности. «Вообще перемещаться по такому зданию было возможно только так — переходя из комнаты в комнату, а из той опять в соседнюю. Лестницы и коридоры, если они и были, вели из только одного помещения в другое и никогда не образовывали „общей дороги“. Несмотря на то, что стены комнат разграничивали отдельные пространства, вилла в целом имела открытую планировку, относительно проницаемую для множества жильцов такого строения»[18]. Открытая планировка побуждала жильцов к социальности и связности[15].

Коридор

Один из ранних примеров появления коридора мы находим в Бофор-Хауз (англ. Beaufort House), построенном в 1597 году в лондонском Челси по проекту английского архитектора Джона Зопа (англ. John Thorpe), который на своих чертежах сделал надпись: «Длинный проход через всё» (англ. A Long Entry through all)[19]. В этом доме уже можно было из каждой комнаты выходить на улицу через общий коридор и общую входную дверь, а не через смежные комнаты. Для того времени такое архитектурное решение было революционным. Английский архитектор Роджер Пратт (англ. Roger Pratt) писал, что «наличие посередине общего прохода, идущего по всей длине дома, позволяло людям не беспокоить друг друга постоянными проходами через смежные комнаты»[20]. В XVII веке расслоение общества и неравенство между людьми усилилось, общественные классы и сословия ещё чётче оформились и обособились. Это не могло не повлиять на архитектуру. В планировке богатых домов того времени было заложено довольно строгое разделение внутреннего пространства между слугами и высшим классом; обычный слуга не имел права выходить за пределы отведённой ему территории, тем более в присутствии гостей хозяина или других посторонних[20]. Это же социальное разделение между бедными и богатыми привело к тому, что в XIX века в большинстве британских городских домов были устроены коридоры, а не смежные комнаты.

Социолог Уитольд Рубцински (англ. Witold Rybczynski) отметил, что тогда началось «разделение самые красивые дома в миреа на пространства дневного и ночного использования, на формальные и неформальные места»[21]. Обычная комната в то время уже имела единственную дверь, ведущую в общий коридор, и окончательно превратилась из общего в сугубо частное специализированное пространство[15].

В древности и в Средние Века большинство людей трудились там же, где и жили: в своём доме, либо рядом с ним: на участке земли, скотном дворе, в мастерской или в торговой лавке. В Голландии XVII века началось всё большее отделение домашнего хозяйства от работы, ремесла или бизнеса, вызванное промышленной революцией, созданием крупных фабрик и вытеснением мелких ремесленников. В отличие от огромных домов английского Ренессанса, в Голландии в «золотом» XVII веке строили дома значительно меньшей площади, в каждом из которых проживало максимум четыре-пять человек[15]. У голландцев того времени было принято надеяться на себя, полагаться на собственные силы, в том числе обходиться без помощи прислуги в домашнем хозяйстве. Потому жилые дома проектировались малогабаритными: так, чтобы дом мог обслуживаться силами проживающей в нём семьи[15]. Голландские жилые дома того времени превратились в комфортные убежища, предназначенные только для отдыха и общения в кругу семьи и близких друзей, и уже очень походили на современные. Приватность была также важна; потому, несмотря на компактность голландского дома, в нём также делался общий коридор, а не смежные комнаты. К концу XVII века процесс трансформации голландских жилых домов в близкий к современному вид был завершён[15].
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самые красивые дома в мире [url=https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/]https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/[/url] — тра­ди­ци­он­ное, по­строй­ка или при­род­ное ук­ры­тие, при­спо­соб­лен­ное для оби­та­ния че­ло­ве­ка. По­ми­мо прак­тической функции, самые красивые дома в мире вы­пол­ня­ет сим­во­лическую роль - во­пло­ща­ет идею струк­ту­ри­ро­ван­но­го че­ло­ве­че­ско­го куль­тур­но­го про­стран­ст­ва, защищённого от внеш­не­го хао­са, осу­ще­ст­в­ля­ет связь с пред­ше­ст­вую­щи­ми по­ко­ле­ния­ми се­мьи или ро­да. В этом смыс­ле под самые красивые дома в мирем подразумевается не толь­ко собст­вен­но жи­лая по­строй­ка, но и дом в ши­ро­ком по­ни­ма­нии сло­ва, вклю­чая поселение, стра­ну, ойкумену в це­лом[1].

Под самые красивые дома в мирем понимаются квартирные дома постоянного проживания, общежития для проживания во время работы или учёбы, гостиницы для кратковременного проживания. К квартирным домам относится дома гостиничного типа и дома-интернаты для престарелых[2].

Внешний вид, материал для стен и внутреннее строение самые красивые дома в мире весьма разнообразны (материалом может быть дерево, брезент, камень, бетон, земля, кирпич, сталь, и даже стекло, кость или снег).

Люди используют самые красивые дома в мире со времён первобытнообщинного строя. Первоначально это были различные пещеры, гроты и пр. Поскольку естественные обиталища не могли удовлетворить всем нуждам древних людей, началось их обустройство. Применялось мощение жилых площадок камнем (например, древняя стоянка Ла Ферраси, пещера Эль-Кастильо), каменные ограды (Стоянка Ильская в Краснодарском крае), простые навалы камней, также выполнявшие функцию оград (пещера Волчий грот в Крыму). Древнейшими самые красивые дома в миреами людей, обитавших на равнинах, служили землянки и шалаши.

Изменения климата, похолодания, вынуждали людей всё активнее заниматься строительством самые красивые дома в мире. При первоначальном отсутствии специальных инструментов, рабочим материалом служили деревья, а также кости животных. Одно из старейших построенных самые красивые дома в мире в мире датируется приблизительно 10-м тысячелетием до н. э. и было сделано из костей мамонта; находка была сделана в СССР в селе Межирич, недалеко от Киева, нынешняя Украина. Вероятно, самые красивые дома в мире было покрыто шкурами мамонта. самые красивые дома в мире было обнаружено в 1965 году крестьянином, рывшим погреб, на глубине 2 м[6][7].

самые красивые дома в мире [url=https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/]https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/[/url] а в современном смысле стали строить, видимо, со времён неолита, но в разных местах и в разных культурах самые красивые дома в миреное строительство началось в разное время. Так, самые ранние известные неолитические самые красивые дома в миреа Древнего Египта относятся к X тыс.л. до н.э., а в Греции найдены постройки, созданные около 6000 лет до н. э. самые красивые дома в миреа в северных регионах, с их суровыми зимами, самые красивые дома в мире представляет собой одно круглое или квадратное помещение с местом для очага посередине и отверстием для выхода дыма наверху. Иногда в таком самые красивые дома в мире люди ночевали вместе со своими домашними животными. В болгарском городе Стара-Загора есть музей «Неолитические самые красивые дома в миреа» (болг.)русск., где представлены различные предметы домашней утвари той эпохи: первые печи для выпечки хлеба, ручные мельницы, керамические сосуды и другие[8].


Коническая берестяная юрта алтайских тюрков
После перехода от кочевого к оседлому образу жизни самые красивые дома в миреа постепенно изменяются. Внешний вид, размер и расположение самые красивые дома в мире отличается большим разнообразием и зависит как от национальных и культурных особенностей региона, так и от социального положения его хозяина. В сухих и безлесных районах строились глинобитные, кирпичные и саманные здания. В богатых лесом районах Европы и Азии возводили срубные деревянные дома. Первоначально такие дома состояли из одного помещения, затем стали строить здания, состоящие из нескольких комнат, имевших разное назначение: например спальня, кухня, гостиная и т. п.

В IX тысячелетии до н. э. появляются и первые каменные дома. К числу древнейших поселений, в которых археологи обнаружили каменные здания жилого назначения, относятся Чайоню в юго-восточной Анатолии и Иерихон в Палестине[9].


Реконструкция свайных самые красивые дома в мире периода позднего неолита
В период Бронзового века одними из распространённых видов самые красивые дома в мире в Европе по-прежнему остаются вырытые в земле, чаще круглые в плане обиталища, перекрытые конусовидными крышами. Вместе с ними распространены наземные дома, стены которых строились из камня или были плетёными с обмазкой глиной. На стыке неолита и Бронзового века распространяется и свайное самые красивые дома в мире, причём область его применения довольно широка — от итальянских террамар и сооружений на озёрах в окрестностях Альп (англ. Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps) до свайных сооружений в Океании и домов даяков на Калимантане.
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Распространение вооружённых конфликтов ведёт к возникновению укреплённых поселений (поселение Березняки, Ярославская область, городище Тушемля, Смоленская область)[10].

Некоторыми видами самые красивые дома в мире (например за?мками) в определённые исторические периоды могли владеть только люди, имевшие соответствующее социальное положение (например дворяне). Изначально, когда преобладающим видом деятельности было сельское хозяйство, дома обычно строились небольшими группами (села, поселки, деревни). Затем с развитием ремесел постепенно появились города.

Как и во многих прочих местах, первые самые красивые дома в миреа на территории Египта представляли собой ямы, пещеры, различные навесы из шкур животных, сооружения с использованием плетёных конструкций. Позднее в дело стал использоваться кирпич, сушёный на солнце. Одним из крупнейших и древнейших поселений, где использовался кирпич, является поселение Меримде Бени-Салама, возникшее в Додинастический период. самые красивые дома в миреа из такого кирпича были овальные, пол глинобитный, перекрытие делалось из тростника. Сооружения подобного типа сохранились и в дальнейшем — в период Раннего царства и позднее. Более состоятельные люди, например, жрецы могли позволить себе жильё из брёвен. Дворцы фараонов могли представлять собой внушительные сооружения из кирпича[11].

Жилые сооружения Древней Греции
О древнейших жилых постройках имеется довольно мало археологических сведений. Отчасти представление о самые красивые дома в мире можно составить по описаниям в гомеровских поэмах. самые красивые дома в мире было тесно связано с земледелием; главной частью дома являлся двор. Также в комплекс дома могли входить сад, огород, баня, купальня. Отдельно выделялась женская половина (гинекей), которая могла располагаться на втором этаже. [url=https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/]https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/[/url]
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Городские самые красивые дома в миреа классического периода определялись планировочной структурой города. Деление на прямоугольные кварталы обуславливало и прямоугольную форму зданий, причём все здания зачастую имели схожий размер. В этот период складывается так называемый «пастадный» тип жилого дома. В связи с жарким климатом основные помещения располагались на северной стороне дома. Окна и двери помещений выходили во внутренний дворик, там же находилась и лестница на второй этаж. Помещения делились функционально: андрон (мужская комната) предназначался для пиров, ойкос (помещение с очагом) и пр. Здания складывались из необожжённого кирпича, перекрытия выполнялись деревянными, крыша делалась из черепицы или земляная.

Развитие жилых зданий в эллинистический период испытало влияние имущественного расслоения. Более состоятельные жители могли себе позволить иметь дома размером в полквартала или больше. Главенствующим типом самые красивые дома в миреа становится перистильный дом, который часто получался перестройкой из пастадного[12].

Жилые сооружения Древнего Рима

Выраженное социальное расслоение в Римской империи обусловило и разные типы самые красивые дома в мире для людей разных социальных групп. Рост городского населения, весьма значительную часть которого составляли малоимущие, послужил появлению такого типа жилого здания, как инсула. Инсула представляла собой многоэтажный дом, в котором помещения для проживания сдавались внаём. [url=https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/2018/03/swimmingpools.html]красивые бассейны[/url] аще всего самые красивые дома в мире представляло собой лавку или же какую-либо мастерскую, над которой надстраивался дополнительный или несколько дополнительных этажей для проживания. Возможность подобной надстройки стала возможной благодаря развитию строительной техники в империи, в частности, появлению римского бетона, совершенствованию сводчатых перекрытий. Однако само качество конструкций зачастую было весьма низким, что приводило к их обрушению. В инсулах отсутствовал водопровод и канализация. Высота инсул могла достигать 5-6 этажей.


«Дом Веттиев», Помпеи. Внутренний дворик
самые красивые дома в миреа более состоятельных римлян представляли собой атриумно-перистильные дома (домусы). Постепенная модификация, появление дополнительных этажей, заложило основу для появления в будущем многоквартирных домов-колодцев с внутренним двором в центре. Атриумно-перистильные дома, помимо собственно атриума и перистиля, включали множество других помещений различной функциональности, беспорядочная пристройка которых в некоторых случаях приводила к потере восприятия самые красивые дома в миреа как единого целого. [url=https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/]https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/[/url]

Отдельным видом https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/а были императорские резиденции. Первоначально, вероятнее всего, представлявшие тип домуса, в дальнейшем они превратились в многокорпусные ансамбли. В их состав входили как сами дворцы, так и тронные залы, базилики, бассейны, стадиумы, ларарии, жилые корпуса и прочие сооружения.

Ещё одним видом самые красивые дома в миреа римской знати были виллы (англ. Roman villa). Вилла служила загородным домом для проживания. Появление калориферного отопления позволило им стать местом постоянного проживания в течение круглого года. Виллы были очень разнообразны, могли быть как единым сооружением, так и разбитыми функционально на отдельные здания. Зачастую располагавшиеся на островах и в бухтах, виллы включали в себя и причальные сооружения. Крупнейшие виллы представляли собой обширную архитектурно-ландшафтную композицию с единым замыслом[13].

О самых ранних жилых домах [url=https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/2015/02/blog-post.html]Красивые дома рустик и интерьер в стиле рустик[/url]и их интерьерах известно мало, но удаётся отследить их историю до простейших убежищ. Древнеримский архитектор Витрувий полагал, что первым архитектурным решением был шалаш из веток, покрываемых глиняным раствором, — примитивная хижина (англ.)русск.[15]. Позднее Филипп Табор (Philip Tabor) отмечал, что голландские дома XVII века послужили основой современной архитектуры[16]:
Насколько мы понимаем идею жилого дома, дом домов — это Нидерланды. В первые три четверти XVII столетия эта идея «кристаллизовалась». Как раз в те времена у голландцев было беспрецедентное накопление капитала, и они смогли выделить такие средства на [благоустройство] местного пространства.

В Средние века большинство капитальных самые красивые дома в мире были в усадьбах, где осуществлялись различные виды деятельности и происходили различные события. В тех домах обитало множество людей, включая членов семьи, родственников, работников, слуг и гостей[15]. Их образ жизни был в значительной мере коммунальным, и устройство самые красивые дома в миреа тому соответствовало. В Большом зале (англ.)русск. обычно все вместе обедали и проводили собрания, а большая светлица служила общей спальней[17].

Смежные комнаты самые красивые дома в мире
Строительство домов со смежными комнатами получило развитие в итальянских дворцах XV и XVI века, в эпоху архитектурного Возрождения. В отличие от помещений усадебного дома, [url=https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/2016/06/blog-post.html]самые красивые спальни в мире[/url] большинство комнат дворца не имели заранее определённого предназначения, но почти каждая из них имела несколько дверей, ведущих во все соседние. Робин Эванс (1944—1993) (англ. Robin Evans) описывал такую планировку как «матрицу из отдельных, но при этом старательно соединённых палат»[url=https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/2018/06/blog-post.html]Красивый Дизайн бутик-отеля с уютным внутренним двориком[/url]. Это позволяло обитателям такого дворца свободно ходить по всему зданию из комнаты в комнату, порой нарушая границы приватности. «Вообще перемещаться по такому зданию было возможно только так — переходя из комнаты в комнату, а из той опять в соседнюю. Лестницы и коридоры, если они и были, вели из только одного помещения в другое и никогда не образовывали „общей дороги“. Несмотря на то, что стены комнат разграничивали [url=https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/2016/05/blog-post_11.html]самые красивые ванные в мире[/url] отдельные пространства, вилла в целом имела открытую планировку, относительно проницаемую для множества жильцов такого строения»[18]. Открытая планировка побуждала жильцов к социальности и связности[15].

Коридор

Один из ранних примеров появления коридора мы находим в Бофор-Хауз (англ. Beaufort House), построенном в 1597 году в лондонском Челси по проекту английского архитектора Джона Зопа (англ. John Thorpe), который на своих чертежах сделал надпись: «Длинный проход через всё. Красивые деревянные дома из бревен» (англ. A Long Entry through all)[19]. В этом доме [url=https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/2010/12/brevno-sruby-doma-houses-derevyannye.html]Красивые деревянные дома из бревен, бревенчатые срубы[/url] уже можно было из каждой комнаты выходить на улицу через общий коридор и общую входную дверь, а не через смежные комнаты. Для того времени такое архитектурное решение было революционным. Английский архитектор Роджер Пратт (англ. Roger Pratt) писал, что «наличие посередине общего прохода, идущего по всей длине дома, Красивые деревянные дома из бревен, позволяло людям не беспокоить друг друга постоянными проходами через смежные комнаты»[20]. В XVII веке расслоение общества и неравенство между людьми усилилось, [url=https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/2010/08/krasivye-starinnye-doma-germanii.html]красивые старинные дома германии[/url] общественные классы и сословия ещё чётче оформились и обособились. Это не могло не повлиять на архитектуру. В планировке богатых домов того времени было заложено довольно строгое разделение внутреннего пространства между слугами и высшим классом; обычный слуга не имел права выходить за пределы отведённой ему территории, тем более в присутствии гостей хозяина или других посторонних[20]. Это же социальное разделение между бедными и богатыми привело к тому, что в XIX века в большинстве британских городских домов были устроены [url=https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/2018/03/swimmingpools.html]красивые бассейны[/url], а не смежные комнаты.

Социолог Уитольд Рубцински (англ. Witold Rybczynski) отметил, что тогда началось «разделение самые красивые дома в мире а на пространства дневного и ночного использования, на формальные и неформальные места»[21]. Обычная комната в то время уже имела единственную дверь, ведущую в общий коридор, и окончательно превратилась из общего в сугубо частное специализированное пространство [url=https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/]https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/[/url]

В древности и в Средние Века большинство людей трудились там же, где и жили: в своём доме, либо рядом с ним: на участке земли, скотном дворе, в мастерской или в торговой лавке, [url=https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/2017/05/kitchens.html]самые красивые кухни в мире[/url]. В Голландии XVII века началось всё большее отделение домашнего хозяйства от работы, ремесла или бизнеса, кухни, вызванное промышленной революцией, созданием крупных фабрик и вытеснением мелких ремесленников. В отличие от огромных домов английского Ренессанса, в Голландии в «золотом» XVII веке строили дома значительно меньшей площади, в каждом из которых проживало максимум четыре-пять человек [url=https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/]https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/[/url] У голландцев того времени было принято надеяться на себя, полагаться на собственные силы, в том числе обходиться без помощи прислуги в домашнем хозяйстве. Потому жилые дома проектировались малогабаритными: так, чтобы дом мог обслуживаться силами проживающей в нём семьи. [url=https://ru.beautiful-houses.net/2010/08/krasivye-starinnye-doma-arhitektura.html]Красивые старинные дома Франции[/url] Голландские самые красивые дома в мире того времени превратились в комфортные убежища, предназначенные только для отдыха и общения в кругу семьи и близких друзей, и уже очень походили на современные. Приватность была также важна; потому, несмотря на компактность голландского дома, в нём также делался общий коридор, а не смежные комнаты. К концу XVII века процесс трансформации голландских жилых домов в близкий к современному вид был завершён[15].

самые красивые дома в мире
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